## Why the universe is spherical

loopdoctorOctober 15October 150Level I Student

The relevance of the perfect cosmological principle to the universal model is enormous. The universe can either be Euclidean and infinitely large and old, or spherical and limited in space and time. Which one is correct, that is abiding physics laws and observations? Observations show that the universe must be...

## The E-M-R-W Universe

LoopdoctorsSeptember 27September 270Level I Student

The current FLRW model of the universe has a lot of controversies: dark energy, dark matter, changing speed of light, anomalies, etc. It is in conflict with Einstein, and Noether. With help of Robertson&Walker’s measuring systematic, based on Einstein’s first model, a 3-sphere with a 4D-radius as factor of time solves...

The ‘Event Horizon Telescope’ presented us with a stunning view of a black hole, far, far away in galaxy M87. A great and valuable result! Important to mention that the suggestion of Event Horizon positioned outside of a black hole is a myth, not supported by any theoretical or observational evidence. A...

## Albert Einstein debates with Emmy Noether

LoopdoctorsAugust 16March 11Level III Doctor

Emmy and Albert knew each other very well. However Einstein never incorporated seriously the brilliant ideas of Emmy Noether. On the homepage of this site we organised and filmed a short virtual debate between the two. So herewith we correct history afterwards for the better of Physics! The film is going pretty...

Black Hole Singularities and Wormholes: Albert Einstein would have warned against them and Karl Schwarzschild would have corrected these ideas, caused by errors. This article explains extensively the history behind these errors and also how they must be repaired. It turns out that a so called Event horizon belongs in...

Contrary to popular believe, there are many Schwarzschild Solutions. Karl himself found one to a mass-point and one to a sphere of in-compressible liquid early 1916. After Karl’s death Einstein made important changes in his official publication: he abandoned his g = -1 requirement in a footnote. Nobody checked...

Many cosmologists accept “Dark Energy” as representing today about 70% of all mass-energy of the universe and think it’s increasing every day. Where does it come from if the universe is all there is? A universal model should be based on laws of physics, energy conservation and constants of nature being constant. Emmy...

## Beyond our universe lies our future

LoopdoctorsApril 28March 11Level I Student

It is hard to take space-time seriously. What is the consequence for the four-dimensional shape of our universe? For better understanding, this article uses 2-d sections to visualize Einstein’s first model. This static model used a cosmological constant which Einstein later withdrew. The authors present a new 3-sphere...

After publication in 1905 of his Special Relativity, Einstein was praised but he also got a lot of criticism. Paul Ehrenfest, Mach and others revealed inconsistencies. Einstein listened to them and made crucial improvements in 1916 so that the famous paradoxes disappeared. It formed the basis for his General...

## Mysticism in Relativity

LoopdoctorsMarch 30April 20Level I Student

How many people understand Relativity? Many say they do, but how do they explain the paradoxes of Special Relativity (SR)? Do they know that Einstein changed his mind about his own SR in 1916? They should know that he abandoned the equality of reference frames already in 1916, solving the twin paradox. Then Einstein...