Einstein wrote about the influence of gravitation on time in his theory of General Relativity. Then came Emmy Noether’s theorem: Energy conservation demands invariance of the constants of nature, like the speed of light. She wrote to Einstein that his theory cannot guarantee energy conservation in strong...

## The day Relativity changed

loopdoctorNovember 30January 290Level I Student, Level II Advanced, Level III Doctor

Einstein published his theory of General Relativity (GR) in stages. Based on these publications, Karl Schwarzschild found two exact solutions in January and February 1916. However, on May the 11th of that year, Einstein published his official GR – with important changes effecting both of Karl’s exact solutions and...

## Relative to the whole universe – Natural coordinates

loopdoctorNovember 7November 70Level I Student

Is everything relative? Well, funny enough everything is relative except everything, the universe. The universe is all there is, by definition. The universe is 100% of what there is, so we can express everything relative to the universe of 100%. Einstein used this method of natural coordinates, making...

It seems nobody has fully understanding of Einstein’s theories, his errors and changes of mind. Karl Schwarzschild did, in 1915, but due to critisism Einstein changed his 1915-version a year later, after Karl’s death. Nobody then corrected Karl’s solutions and inconsistencies persist, are copied and copied again....

## Hubble and Humason measured redshift

loopdoctorNovember 1November 10Level I Student

The trouble with the widely used Hubble law v = H.D is, that the speed-factor is based on Hubble’s own assumption without any proof. They only combined estimated distances of galaxies with their measured redshift. Later observations of much higher redshifted galaxies in deep space, force us to adapt the law....

## Properties of a torus-shaped Black hole

loopdoctorOctober 31October 310Level II Advanced

The ‘photo’ of the black hole in M87 is already iconic. The ‘Event Horizon telescope’ gave us a valuable look on the enormous object. But what do we see?ETH think it is the accretion disk (sending radiowaves) around the event horizon of a singularity. This conflicts with physics, Karl Schwarzschild and Einstein...

## Einstein’s neglected demands of GR solutions

loopdoctorOctober 26October 260Level III Doctor

The Theory of General Relativity is very complicated mathematics. Einstein formulated a number of demands to ensure that solutions match measurement physics. Exact Schwarzschild solutions have later been changed by astronomers, unscientifically, to get rid of difficult issues.The relevance is great: abiding...

## Cold gas planets like Neptune are much hotter

loopdoctorOctober 26October 260Level I Student

The temperature of Neptune’s upper atmosphere is very low, but high activity levels like geysers were seen by Voyager 2 in 1989. Surprising because current publications estimate the core temperature at only about 5,400 [Kelvin].However, based on Noether’s theorem of energy conservation the core must be more than...

The “perfect cosmological principle” describes how a model of the universe should look like. This principle requires the model of the universe to be homogenous (the same everywhere) and isotropic (the same in all directions). Many cosmologists apply this principle to space only, but the universe consists of...

## Hubble based distance ladder-advanced for all distances

loopdoctorOctober 22October 220Level II Advanced

The Hubble law is widely used as distance ladder. Edwin Hubble assumed that high redshifted galaxies was caused by their speed, which led to the expanding universe. He never imagined that a redshift of more than 1 would ever be measured. How about relativity: Doppler at ultra-high speeds and gravitation?A step...