In 1908 Hermann Minkowski improved Special Relativity Theorie by replacing the Lorentz transformation by his own differential formula. Einstein followed him because now the speed of the proper observer could vary. Later Einstein made use of Minkowski’s formula in his General Relativity. Another advantage was that the...

The Hubble law (1931) relates the speed of a galaxy to its distance. The Hubble law works well for galaxies within our local group, but was never meant for highly redshifted galaxies, since it is based on the non-relativistic Doppler Effect. For highly redshifted galaxies, like GN-z11 with a redshift “z” of 11.1,...

## Lorentz transformation or Minkowski formula?

loopdoctorFebruary 20February 200Level II Advanced

In his Theory of General Relativity, Einstein replaced the Lorentz transformation by the formula of his tutor Minkowski. What happens if we apply the Minkowski formula back into the Theory of Spécial Relativity? What are the differences? This article shows: the Minkowski’s formula doesn’t create the Twin- and Ehrenfest...

## Density is relative to Speed and has No Maximum

loopdoctorFebruary 20February 200Level I Student

The laws of physics in proper frames (at high speed for example) are limited in their applicability. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN high speed particles are being researched. A key question is, to what extend can a (hypothetical) proper observer, travelling along with a proton in the LHC, apply the laws of...

## Relativity Solutions need repair

loopdoctorFebruary 20February 200Level III Doctor

Einstein’s publication in the ‘Annalen der Physik’ urged many scientists to work. Did you know that there are five different Schwarzschild Solutions? How do you know which one is right? This article presents you three ways to check the outcome: The General Relativity Principles, the GR field equations and the Laplace...

## Time and Repairing the Schwarzschild Solution

loopdoctorFebruary 18July 110Level II Advanced

In his theory of General Relativity, Einstein replaced the Lorentz transformation by the Minkowski formula. He also introduced the variable speed of light in gravitation. This is unnecessary and untenable: it is in conflict with Noether’s theorem on energy and momentum conservation. The authors use the ‘time’...

## Gravitation not acceleration influences the clock.

loopdoctorFebruary 15February 170Level II Advanced

How do you interpret the equivalence principle of gravity and acceleration? Einstein said: standing in a hypothetical closed elevator, you cannot determine whether you hang still and feel the effect of gravity of a planet nearby , or you feel the same effect caused by the elevator accelerating out in space. What...

## No ‘Event Horizon’ in New Time-like Solution

loopdoctorFebruary 15March 160Level III Doctor

Einstein’s General Relativity contains the Laplace operator of a sphere of incompressible liquid. It links the time-like solution (how fast does the clock tick) directly with the gravitational potential: no need for using tensor operations. He never applied it to the potential inside a sphere. This article is doing...

## Earth’s core temperature calculated, not guessed

loopdoctorFebruary 11February 170Level I Student

The cause of the high temperature of the inner core of the earth is currently thought to be radioactive decay and residual heat. This article provides a different explanation: Energy conservation. Imagine a tunnel through the earth and calculate the potential energy of a molecule at the surface and in the core. You...

## Shapiro annihilates Eddington’s “drop the suffix”

loopdoctorFebruary 11February 120Level II Advanced

Long after Einstein’s death, Shapiro sent a radar signal to Venus, in its position opposite of the sun, and half an hour later received it back. With this astonishing experiment he proved part of the delay (190 microsec) was caused by the gravitation of the sun. Eddington, expert in Einstein’s theory of General...