Level I Student

Basic formulas and calculation steps explained

Many cosmologists accept “Dark Energy” as representing today about 70% of all mass-energy of the universe and think it’s increasing every day. Where does it come from if the universe is all there is? A universal model should be based on laws of physics, energy conservation and constants of nature being constant. Emmy...

It is hard to take space-time seriously. What is the consequence for the four-dimensional shape  of our universe? For better understanding, this article uses 2-d sections to visualize  Einstein’s first model. This static model used a cosmological constant which Einstein later withdrew. The authors present a new...

After publication in 1905 of his Special Relativity, Einstein was praised but he also got a lot of criticism. Paul Ehrenfest, Mach and others revealed inconsistencies. Einstein listened to them and made crucial improvements in 1916 so that the famous paradoxes disappeared. It formed the basis for his General...

How many people understand Relativity? Many say they do, but how do they explain the paradoxes of Special Relativity (SR)? Do they know that Einstein changed his mind about his own SR in 1916? They should know that he abandoned the equality of reference frames already in 1916, solving the twin paradox. Then Einstein...

The age of our universe depends on the estimate of the Hubble constant. Recent measurements (WHAP, Planck, ed) would mean an age of more than 14.5 billion years. This article takes a different approach, based on Noether’s theorem on energy conservation and the comoving coordinates of Robertson and Walker. The age now...

In 1908 Hermann  Minkowski improved Special Relativity Theorie by replacing the Lorentz transformation by his own differential formula. Einstein followed him because now the speed of the proper observer could vary. Later Einstein made use of Minkowski’s formula in his General Relativity. Another advantage was that the...

The Hubble law (1931) relates the speed of a galaxy to its distance. The Hubble law works well for galaxies within our local group, but was never meant for highly redshifted galaxies, since it is based on the non-relativistic Doppler Effect. For highly redshifted galaxies, like GN-z11 with a redshift “z” of 11.1,...

The laws of physics in proper frames (at high speed for example) are limited in their applicability. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN high speed particles are being researched. A key question is, to what extend can a (hypothetical) proper observer, travelling along with a proton in the LHC, apply the laws of...

The cause of the high temperature of the inner core of the earth is currently thought to be radioactive decay and residual heat. This article provides a different explanation: Energy conservation. Imagine a tunnel through the earth and calculate the potential energy of a molecule at the surface and in the core. You...

How do you measure? Crucial is which measuring stick or [unit] is used to read the amount or coordinate on your display. Einstein originally didn’t talk about ‘length contraction’ (amount) but about ‘measuring stick contraction’ (unit). Remarkably Einstein’s theories are cast in mathematical formulas using coordinates...