Level I Student

Basic formulas and calculation steps explained

Einstein started publishing on his General Relativity in January-February 1916. On these articles Karl Schwarzschild based his exact solutions. On 11 May that year, however, Einstein published is official GR – with a little but important change: no more two equal reference frames. Too late for Karl. Other...

Is everything relative? Well, funny enough everything is relative except everything, the universe. The universe is all there is, by definition. The universe is 100% of what there is, so we can express everything relative to the universe of 100%. Einstein used this method of natural coordinates, making...

The trouble with the widely used Hubble law v = H.D is, that the speed-factor is based on Hubble’s own assumption without any proof. They only combined estimated distances of galaxies with their measured redshift. Later observations of much higher redshifted galaxies in deep space, force us to adapt the law....

The temperature of Neptune’s upper atmosphere is very low, but high activity levels like geysers were seen by Voyager 2 in 1989. Surprising because current publications estimate the core temperature at only about 5,400 [Kelvin].However, based on Noether’s theorem of energy conservation the core must be more than...

The “perfect cosmological principle” describes how a model of the universe should look like. This principle requires the model of the universe to be homogenous (the same everywhere) and isotropic (the same in all directions). Many cosmologists apply this principle to space only, but the universe consists of...

Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory was brilliant and many know the famous formula E = mc2. However the theory also was criticized. Ehrenfest, Mach and others showed inconsistencies and even Einstein himself formulated his twin paradox: who has become older after return?With help of Minkowsky he solved all...

Recently, a group of astronomers recalculated the mass of the Milky Way, with the help of new data from the Gaia and Hubble space telescopes. Until now, different estimates varied from 500 billion to 3 trillion sun-masses, mainly due to the unknown “dark matter” which is supposed to present the largest part...

The relevance of the perfect cosmological principle to the universal model is enormous. The universe can either be Euclidean and infinitely large and old, or spherical and limited in space and time. Which one is correct, that is abiding physics laws and observations? Observations show that the universe must be...

The current FLRW model of the universe has a lot of controversies: dark energy, dark matter, changing speed of light, anomalies, etc. It is in conflict with Einstein, and Noether. With help of Robertson&Walker’s measuring systematic, based on Einstein’s first model, a 3-sphere with a 4D-radius as factor of time solves...

The ‘Event Horizon Telescope’ presented us with a stunning view of a black hole, far, far away in galaxy M87. A great and valuable result! Important to mention that the suggestion of Event Horizon positioned outside of a black hole is a myth, not supported by any theoretical or observational evidence. A...