Emmy Noether’s theorem was published a year after Einstein’s General Relativity. The consequences of her results were ignored by famous Albert Einstein. However, she created one of the pillars of physics: defining reference frames within which energy and momentum conservation can be proven.
It means that the laws of nature and its constants, like the speed of light, must be invariant to time in the wider reference frame.
At first, her questioning doesn’t seem dangerous, but soon Einstein admits that his theory uses approximations. His speed of light is not constant though he unifies also c to 1.
His theory doesn’t hold good in strong gravitation. Irwin Shapiro would prove, 50 years later, that Emmy was right.
In this filmed virtual conversation Emmy Noether is testing Einstein systematically and …
they agree in the end!
PS: if you wish, afterwards you can click here to read out the debate and study the formulas.