It all starts with Emmy Noether (1882 – 1935), a brilliant mathematician, creating one of the pillars of physics: defining reference frames within which energy and momentum conservation can be proven.
In 1918 Noether’s theorem was published, more than a year after Einstein published his theory of General Relativity. Although she signaled inconsistencies in his General Relativity, he somehow ignored these comments in his work. Therefore, small errors linger in the Schwarzschild Solution till today. They prohibit the Shapiro delay to be explained by the Schwarzschild Solution. Amazingly, Noether’s theorem is not even mentioned in a major work on Relativity: “Gravitation” by Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler.
This article explains and applies her theorem which reveals the (partly understandable) errors in the Schwarzschild Solution made by Karl himself and also by Eddington.
Shapiro’s experiment in 1963 proved (unwittingly) the errors made in the Schwarzschild Solution. Shapiro did not use the Schwarzschild Solution, but made use of Einstein’s field equations directly and only so obtained the correct outcome of his measurements.
Now it’s time, at last, to implement Noether’s theorem in Einstein’s Relativity!
The authors did not ignore Emmy Noether, but analyzed, checked and rechecked Relativity for Noether’s theorem. This article presents you with the necessary repairs, leading to surprising results.
You get the best of both worlds, paradoxes disappear from Special Relativity (book I), a new formula for gravitation within a sphere (Schwarzschild Solution) explaining the core temperature of the sun (book II), and a new model of the universe without dark energy (Robertson-Walker Solution, book III), which would have pleased Einstein, Minkowski, and Noether alike.