The Hubble law (1931) relates the speed of a galaxy to its distance. The Hubble law works well for galaxies within our local group, but was never meant for highly redshifted galaxies, since it is based on the non-relativistic Doppler Effect.

For highly redshifted galaxies, like GN-z11 with a redshift “z” of 11.1, the Hubble law is out of date. This article shows that cosmic inflation is the main cause of redshift of remote galaxies (z > 0.1). Cosmic inflation is the observation of faster progress of physics at remote galaxies relative to the same processes at galaxies close by, and amounts to redshift plus one. The relativistic Doppler Effect would observe the opposite: observation of slower progress of physics. NASA and ESA observed galaxies producing stars at a furious rate, proving the statement.

The end result is a beautiful universal model without “dark energy”, which conserves energy, pleasing Minkowski, Noether, and Einstein alike. The Hubble law is out of date for remote galaxies.


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