Einstein brilliantly wrote about the influence of gravitation on time in his article on General Relativity. Then came Emmy Noether’s theorem: Energy conservation demands a constancy of the constants of physics, like the speed of light: they must be invariant to time translations. She wrote to Einstein that his GR...

## The day Relativity changed

loopdoctorNovember 30November 300Level I Student, Level II Advanced, Level III Doctor

Einstein started publishing on his General Relativity in January-February 1916. On these articles Karl Schwarzschild based his exact solutions. On 11 May that year, however, Einstein published is official GR – with a little but important change: no more two equal reference frames. Too late for Karl. Other...

Contrary to popular believe, there are many Schwarzschild Solutions. Karl himself found one to a mass-point and one to a sphere of in-compressible liquid early 1916. After Karl’s death Einstein made important changes in his official publication: he abandoned his g = -1 requirement in a footnote. Nobody checked...

Many cosmologists accept “Dark Energy” as representing today about 70% of all mass-energy of the universe and think it’s increasing every day. Where does it come from if the universe is all there is? A universal model should be based on laws of physics, energy conservation and constants of nature being constant. Emmy...

## Beyond our universe lies our future

LoopdoctorsApril 28March 11Level I Student

It is hard to take space-time seriously. What is the consequence for the four-dimensional shape of our universe? For better understanding, this article uses 2-d sections to visualize Einstein’s first model. This static model used a cosmological constant which Einstein later withdrew. The authors present a new 3-sphere...

## Our universe stays 11 billion years old

LoopdoctorsMarch 17April 200Level I Student

The age of our universe depends on the estimate of the Hubble constant. Recent measurements (WHAP, Planck, ed) would mean an age of more than 14.5 billion years. This article takes a different approach, based on Noether’s theorem on energy conservation and the comoving coordinates of Robertson and Walker. The age now...

## Relativity Solutions need repair

loopdoctorFebruary 20February 200Level III Doctor

Einstein’s publication in the ‘Annalen der Physik’ urged many scientists to work. Did you know that there are five different Schwarzschild Solutions? How do you know which one is right? This article presents you three ways to check the outcome: The General Relativity Principles, the GR field equations and the Laplace...

## Time and Repairing the Schwarzschild Solution

loopdoctorFebruary 18July 110Level II Advanced

In his theory of General Relativity, Einstein replaced the Lorentz transformation by the Minkowski formula. He also introduced the variable speed of light in gravitation. This is unnecessary and untenable: it is in conflict with Noether’s theorem on energy and momentum conservation. The authors use the ‘time’...

## Emmy Noether, the ignored scientist

loopdoctorDecember 4February 190Level I Student, Level II Advanced, Level III Doctor

It all starts with Emmy Noether (1882 – 1935), a brilliant mathematician, creating one of the pillars of physics: defining reference frames within which energy and momentum conservation can be proven. In 1918 Noether’s theorem was published, more than a year after Einstein published his theory of General...