## Hubble based distance ladder-advanced for all distances

loopdoctorOctober 22October 220Level II Advanced

The Hubble law is widely used as distance ladder. Edwin Hubble assumed that high redshifted galaxies was caused by their speed, which led to the expanding universe. He never imagined that a redshift of more than 1 would ever be measured. How about relativity: Doppler at ultra-high speeds and gravitation?A step...

## The E-M-R-W Universe

LoopdoctorsSeptember 27September 270Level I Student

The current FLRW model of the universe has a lot of controversies: dark energy, dark matter, changing speed of light, anomalies, etc. It is in conflict with Einstein, and Noether. With help of Robertson&Walker’s measuring systematic, based on Einstein’s first model, a 3-sphere with a 4D-radius as factor of time solves...

Many cosmologists accept “Dark Energy” as representing today about 70% of all mass-energy of the universe and think it’s increasing every day. Where does it come from if the universe is all there is? A universal model should be based on laws of physics, energy conservation and constants of nature being constant. Emmy...

## Beyond our universe lies our future

LoopdoctorsApril 28March 11Level I Student

It is hard to take space-time seriously. What is the consequence for the four-dimensional shape of our universe? For better understanding, this article uses 2-d sections to visualize Einstein’s first model. This static model used a cosmological constant which Einstein later withdrew. The authors present a new 3-sphere...

## Our universe stays 11 billion years old

LoopdoctorsMarch 17April 200Level I Student

The age of our universe depends on the estimate of the Hubble constant. Recent measurements (WHAP, Planck, ed) would mean an age of more than 14.5 billion years. This article takes a different approach, based on Noether’s theorem on energy conservation and the comoving coordinates of Robertson and Walker. The age now...

The Hubble law (1931) relates the speed of a galaxy to its distance. The Hubble law works well for galaxies within our local group, but was never meant for highly redshifted galaxies, since it is based on the non-relativistic Doppler Effect. For highly redshifted galaxies, like GN-z11 with a redshift “z” of 11.1,...

## Andromeda galaxy approaches us 20% faster

loopdoctorFebruary 7February 170Level I Student

Remarkable? Andromeda goes 20% faster than stated in many books and publications. So you see: Our repair-project leads to many consequences and predictions. This article is about the famous Hubble law. The law is explained, analysed and grilled. The measured redshift of our today’s most far spotted galaxy GN-z11...