Posts Tagged ‘universe’

Is everything relative? Well, funny enough everything is relative except everything, the universe. The universe is all there is, by definition. The universe is 100% of what there is, so we can express everything relative to the universe of 100%. Einstein used this method of natural coordinates, making...

The relevance of the perfect cosmological principle to the universal model is enormous. The universe can either be Euclidean and infinitely large and old, or spherical and limited in space and time. Which one is correct, that is abiding physics laws and observations? Observations show that the universe must be...

The current FLRW model of the universe has a lot of controversies: dark energy, dark matter, changing speed of light, anomalies, etc. It is in conflict with Einstein, and Noether. With help of Robertson&Walker’s measuring systematic, based on Einstein’s first model, a 3-sphere with a 4D-radius as factor of time solves...

It is hard to take space-time seriously. What is the consequence for the four-dimensional shape  of our universe? For better understanding, this article uses 2-d sections to visualize  Einstein’s first model. This static model used a cosmological constant which Einstein later withdrew. The authors present a new 3-sphere...

The age of our universe depends on the estimate of the Hubble constant. Recent measurements (WHAP, Planck, ed) would mean an age of more than 14.5 billion years. This article takes a different approach, based on Noether’s theorem on energy conservation and the comoving coordinates of Robertson and Walker. The age now...