To determine the shape of the universe, we need to study how galaxies are distributed across the celestial dome; in other words, we need density measurements of numbers of galaxies in the universe. These measurements have been made, for which astronomy uses the redshift of spectral lines in the light spectrum of...

To my great-grandchildren Would you like to travel to Andromeda? Then you can look around in that other galaxy and investigate what it is like there. Your great-grandparents had spaceships that traveled so slowly that they could not cover the enormous distance in one lifetime. You have much faster ships, but are they...

## Missing links in physics

LoopdoctorMay 23May 230Level II Advanced

Do elementary particles describing gravity exist, represented as large quantities of undiscovered gravitons? Does dark matter exist, or is it perhaps the graviton that physicists are looking for? Does dark energy exist, and what are the conclusions of Hubble’s observations? Is “uncertainty” a physical phenomenon or is...

The new Einstein-Noether Relativity theory is the merger of Einstein’s relativity theories with Noether’s theorems of energy and momentum conservation by the authors. This merger results into two new solutions to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity: the gravitational field of a sphere and the gravitational...

## Reference frames and Spacetime

LoopdoctorNovember 9November 270Level III Doctor

The theory of General Relativity is not yet finished. Spherical coordinates are not the same as Spacetime. How do you use them and what are the consequences? Read the article

In his book ‘My Theory’ of 1917, Einstein described a spherical Universe. He abandoned his model in 1931, after seeing astronomer Hubble’s work on the redshift of distant galaxies. Now, we revive Einstein’s model by using Minkowski’s space-time. This results in a Universal model which needs neither Dark...

Einstein wrote about the influence of gravitation on time in his theory of General Relativity. Then came Emmy Noether’s theorem: Energy conservation demands invariance of the constants of nature, like the speed of light. She wrote to Einstein that his theory cannot guarantee energy conservation in strong...

## The day Relativity changed

LoopdoctorNovember 30March 60Level I Student, Level II Advanced, Level III Doctor

Einstein published his theory of General Relativity (GR) in stages. Based on these publications, Karl Schwarzschild found two exact solutions in January and February 1916. However, on May the 11th of that year, Einstein published his official GR – with important changes effecting both of Karl’s exact...

Is everything relative? Well, funny enough everything is relative except everything, the universe. The universe is all there is, by definition. The universe is 100% of what there is, so we can express everything relative to the universe of 100%. Einstein used this method of natural coordinates, making...

Few people understand Einstein’s theories, his errors, and his changes of mind. Karl Schwarzschild did, but Einstein changed his 1915 version of his theory of General Relativity a year later, around the time of Karl’s death. J. Droste was the first to publish the Schwarzschild Solution based on...