Articles

The Hubble law is widely used as distance ladder. Edwin Hubble assumed that the high redshift of far away galaxies was caused by their speed, which led to the expanding universe. He never imagined that a redshift of more than 1 would ever be measured. How about relativity: Doppler at ultra-high speeds...

Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory was brilliant and many know the famous formula E = mc2. However the theory also was criticized. Ehrenfest, Mach and others showed inconsistencies and even Einstein himself formulated his twin paradox: who has become older after return?With help of Minkowsky he solved...

Recently, a group of astronomers recalculated the mass of the Milky Way, with the help of new data from the Gaia and Hubble space telescopes. Until now, different estimates varied from 500 billion to 3 trillion sun-masses, mainly due to the unknown “dark matter” which is supposed to present the...

The relevance of the perfect cosmological principle to the universal model is enormous. The universe can either be Euclidean and infinitely large and old, or spherical and limited in space and time. Which one is correct, which one is abiding physics laws and explains all observations? Observations show...

The current FLRW model of the universe has a lot of controversies: dark energy, dark matter, changing speed of light, anomalies, etc. It is in conflict with Einstein, and Noether. With help of Robertson&Walker’s measuring systematic, based on Einstein’s first model, a 3-sphere with a 4D-radius as factor of time...

  The ‘Event Horizon Telescope’ presented us with a stunning view of a black hole, far, far away in galaxy M87. A great and valuable result! Important to mention that the suggestion of Event Horizon positioned outside of a black hole is a myth, not supported by any theoretical or observational...

Emmy and Albert knew each other very well. However Einstein never incorporated seriously the brilliant ideas of Emmy Noether. On the homepage of this site we organised and filmed a short virtual debate between the two. So the film corrects history afterwards, for the better of Physics! Because the film is going pretty...

Black Hole Singularities and Wormholes: Albert Einstein would have warned against them and Karl Schwarzschild would have corrected these ideas, caused by errors. This article explains extensively the history behind these errors and also how they must be repaired. It turns out that a so called Event horizon belongs in...

Contrary to popular believe, there are many Schwarzschild Solutions. Karl himself found one to a mass-point and one to a sphere of in-compressible liquid early 1916. After Karl’s death Einstein made important changes in his  official publication: he abandoned his g = -1 requirement in a footnote. Nobody checked...

Many cosmologists accept “Dark Energy” as representing today about 70% of all mass-energy of the universe and think it’s increasing every day. Where does it come from if the universe is all there is? A universal model should be based on laws of physics, energy conservation and constants of nature being constant. Emmy...