To determine the shape of the universe, we need to study how galaxies are distributed across the celestial dome; in other words, we need density measurements of numbers of galaxies in the universe. These measurements have been made, for which astronomy uses the redshift of spectral lines in the light spectrum of...

To my great-grandchildren Would you like to travel to Andromeda? Then you can look around in that other galaxy and investigate what it is like there. Your great-grandparents had spaceships that traveled so slowly that they could not cover the enormous distance in one lifetime. You have much faster ships, but are they...

The new Einstein-Noether Relativity theory is the merger of Einstein’s relativity theories with Noether’s theorems of energy and momentum conservation by the authors. This merger results into two new solutions to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity: the gravitational field of a sphere and the gravitational...

In his book ‘My Theory’ of 1917, Einstein described a spherical Universe. He abandoned his model in 1931, after seeing astronomer Hubble’s work on the redshift of distant galaxies. Now, we revive Einstein’s model by using Minkowski’s space-time. This results in a Universal model which needs neither Dark...

Einstein wrote about the influence of gravitation on time in his theory of General Relativity. Then came Emmy Noether’s theorem: Energy conservation demands invariance of the constants of nature, like the speed of light. She wrote to Einstein that his theory cannot guarantee energy conservation in strong...

## The day Relativity changed

LoopdoctorNovember 30March 60Level I Student, Level II Advanced, Level III Doctor

Einstein published his theory of General Relativity (GR) in stages. Based on these publications, Karl Schwarzschild found two exact solutions in January and February 1916. However, on May the 11th of that year, Einstein published his official GR – with important changes effecting both of Karl’s exact...

Is everything relative? Well, funny enough everything is relative except everything, the universe. The universe is all there is, by definition. The universe is 100% of what there is, so we can express everything relative to the universe of 100%. Einstein used this method of natural coordinates, making...

## Hubble and Humason measured redshift

LoopdoctorNovember 1March 70Level I Student

The trouble with the widely used Hubble law v = H.D is, that this law is based on Hubble’s assumption that speed is the only cause of redshift, without any proof. They related estimated distances of galaxies with their measured redshift. Later observations of much higher redshifted galaxies in...

## Cold gas planets like Neptune are much hotter

LoopdoctorOctober 26March 60Level I Student

The temperature of Neptune’s upper atmosphere is very low, but high activity levels like geysers were seen by Voyager 2 in 1989. Surprising because current publications estimate the core temperature at only about 5,400 [Kelvin].However, based on Noether’s theorem of energy conservation the core must be...

The “perfect cosmological principle” describes how a model of the universe should look like. This principle requires the model of the universe to be homogenous (the same everywhere) and isotropic (the same in all directions). Many cosmologists apply this principle to space only, but the universe...