Level I Student

Basic formulas and calculation steps explained

In his book ‘My Theory’ of 1917, Einstein described a spherical Universe. He abandoned his model in 1931, after seeing astronomer Hubble’s work on the redshift of distant galaxies. Now, we revive Einstein’s model by using Minkowski’s space-time. This results in a Universal model which needs neither Dark...

Einstein wrote about the influence of gravitation on time in his theory of General Relativity. Then came Emmy Noether’s theorem: Energy conservation demands invariance of the constants of nature, like the speed of light. She wrote to Einstein that his theory cannot guarantee energy conservation in strong...

Einstein published his theory of General Relativity (GR) in stages. Based on these publications, Karl Schwarzschild found two exact solutions in January and February 1916. However, on May the 11th of that year, Einstein published his official GR – with important changes effecting both of Karl’s exact...

Is everything relative? Well, funny enough everything is relative except everything, the universe. The universe is all there is, by definition. The universe is 100% of what there is, so we can express everything relative to the universe of 100%. Einstein used this method of natural coordinates, making...

  The trouble with the widely used Hubble law v = H.D is, that this law is based on Hubble’s assumption that speed  is the only cause of redshift, without any proof. They related estimated distances of galaxies with their measured redshift. Later observations of much higher redshifted galaxies in...

The temperature of Neptune’s upper atmosphere is very low, but high activity levels like geysers were seen by Voyager 2 in 1989. Surprising because current publications estimate the core temperature at only about 5,400 [Kelvin].However, based on Noether’s theorem of energy conservation the core must be...

The “perfect cosmological principle” describes how a model of the universe should look like. This principle requires the model of the universe to be homogenous (the same everywhere) and isotropic (the same in all directions). Many cosmologists apply this principle to space only, but the universe...

Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory was brilliant and many know the famous formula E = mc2. However the theory also was criticized. Ehrenfest, Mach and others showed inconsistencies and even Einstein himself formulated his twin paradox: who has become older after return?With help of Minkowsky he solved...

Recently, a group of astronomers recalculated the mass of the Milky Way, with the help of new data from the Gaia and Hubble space telescopes. Until now, different estimates varied from 500 billion to 3 trillion sun-masses, mainly due to the unknown “dark matter” which is supposed to present the...

The relevance of the perfect cosmological principle to the universal model is enormous. The universe can either be Euclidean and infinitely large and old, or spherical and limited in space and time. Which one is correct, which one is abiding physics laws and explains all observations? Observations show...