Level I Student

Basic formulas and calculation steps explained

The laws of physics in proper frames (at high speed for example) are limited in their applicability. In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN high speed particles are being researched. A key question is, to what extend can a (hypothetical) proper observer, travelling along with a proton in the LHC, apply the laws of...

The cause of the high temperature of the inner core of the earth is currently thought to be radioactive decay and residual heat. This article provides a different explanation: Energy conservation. Imagine a tunnel through the earth and calculate the potential energy of a molecule at the surface and in the core. You...

How do you measure? Crucial is which measuring stick or [unit] is used to read the amount or coordinate on your display. Einstein originally didn’t talk about ‘length contraction’ (amount) but about ‘measuring stick contraction’ (unit). Remarkably Einstein’s theories are cast in mathematical formulas using coordinates...

  Remarkable? Andromeda goes 20% faster than stated in many books and publications. So you see: Our repair-project leads to many consequences and predictions. This article is about the famous Hubble law. The law is explained, analysed and grilled. The measured redshift of our today’s most far spotted galaxy GN-z11...

It all starts with Emmy Noether (1882 – 1935), a brilliant mathematician, creating one of the pillars of physics: defining reference frames within which energy and momentum conservation can be proven. In 1918 Noether’s theorem was published, more than a year after Einstein published his theory of General...