Einstein wrote about the influence of gravitation on time in his theory of General Relativity. Then came Emmy Noether’s theorem: Energy conservation demands invariance of the constants of nature, like the speed of light. She wrote to Einstein that his theory cannot guarantee energy conservation in strong...

## The day Relativity changed

LoopdoctorNovember 30March 60Level I Student, Level II Advanced, Level III Doctor

Einstein published his theory of General Relativity (GR) in stages. Based on these publications, Karl Schwarzschild found two exact solutions in January and February 1916. However, on May the 11th of that year, Einstein published his official GR – with important changes effecting both of Karl’s exact...

Contrary to popular believe, there are many Schwarzschild Solutions. Karl himself found one to a mass-point and one to a sphere of in-compressible liquid early 1916. After Karl’s death Einstein made important changes in his official publication: he abandoned his g = -1 requirement in a footnote. Nobody checked...

Many cosmologists accept “Dark Energy” as representing today about 70% of all mass-energy of the universe and think it’s increasing every day. Where does it come from if the universe is all there is? A universal model should be based on laws of physics, energy conservation and constants of nature being constant. Emmy...

## Beyond our universe lies our future

LoopdoctorApril 28March 11Level I Student

It is hard to take space-time seriously. What is the consequence for the four-dimensional shape of our universe? For better understanding, this article uses 2-d sections to visualize Einstein’s first model. This static model used a cosmological constant which Einstein later withdrew. The authors present a new 3-sphere...

## Our universe stays 11 billion years old

LoopdoctorMarch 17April 200Level I Student

The age of our universe depends on the estimate of the Hubble constant. Recent measurements (WHAP, Planck, ed) would mean an age of more than 14.5 billion years. This article takes a different approach, based on Noether’s theorem on energy conservation and the comoving coordinates of Robertson and Walker. The age now...

## Relativity Solutions need repair

LoopdoctorFebruary 20February 200Level III Doctor

Einstein’s publication in the ‘Annalen der Physik’ urged many scientists to work. Did you know that there are five different Schwarzschild Solutions? How do you know which one is right? This article presents you three ways to check the outcome: The General Relativity Principles, the GR field equations and the Laplace...

## Time and Repairing the Schwarzschild Solution

LoopdoctorFebruary 18July 110Level II Advanced

In his theory of General Relativity, Einstein replaced the Lorentz transformation by the Minkowski formula. He also introduced the variable speed of light in gravitation. This is unnecessary and untenable: it is in conflict with Noether’s theorem on energy and momentum conservation. The authors use the ‘time’...

## Emmy Noether, the ignored scientist

LoopdoctorDecember 4February 191Level I Student, Level II Advanced, Level III Doctor

It all starts with Emmy Noether (1882 – 1935), a brilliant mathematician, creating one of the pillars of physics: defining reference frames within which energy and momentum conservation can be proven. In 1918 Noether’s theorem was published, more than a year after Einstein published his theory of General...