To determine the shape of the universe, we need to study how galaxies are distributed across the celestial dome; in other words, we need density measurements of numbers of galaxies in the universe. These measurements have been made, for which astronomy uses the redshift of spectral lines in the light spectrum of...

In his book ‘My Theory’ of 1917, Einstein described a spherical Universe. He abandoned his model in 1931, after seeing astronomer Hubble’s work on the redshift of distant galaxies. Now, we revive Einstein’s model by using Minkowski’s space-time. This results in a Universal model which needs neither Dark...

## Hubble and Humason measured redshift

LoopdoctorNovember 1March 70Level I Student

The trouble with the widely used Hubble law v = H.D is, that this law is based on Hubble’s assumption that speed is the only cause of redshift, without any proof. They related estimated distances of galaxies with their measured redshift. Later observations of much higher redshifted galaxies in...

Many cosmologists accept “Dark Energy” as representing today about 70% of all mass-energy of the universe and think it’s increasing every day. Where does it come from if the universe is all there is? A universal model should be based on laws of physics, energy conservation and constants of nature being constant. Emmy...

## Beyond our universe lies our future

LoopdoctorApril 28March 11Level I Student

It is hard to take space-time seriously. What is the consequence for the four-dimensional shape of our universe? For better understanding, this article uses 2-d sections to visualize Einstein’s first model. This static model used a cosmological constant which Einstein later withdrew. The authors present a new 3-sphere...

## Our universe stays 11 billion years old

LoopdoctorMarch 17April 200Level I Student

The age of our universe depends on the estimate of the Hubble constant. Recent measurements (WHAP, Planck, ed) would mean an age of more than 14.5 billion years. This article takes a different approach, based on Noether’s theorem on energy conservation and the comoving coordinates of Robertson and Walker. The age now...

The Hubble law (1931) relates the speed of a galaxy to its distance. The Hubble law works well for galaxies within our local group, but was never meant for highly redshifted galaxies, since it is based on the non-relativistic Doppler Effect. For highly redshifted galaxies, like GN-z11 with a redshift “z” of 11.1,...

## Andromeda galaxy approaches us 20% faster

LoopdoctorFebruary 7February 170Level I Student

Remarkable? Andromeda goes 20% faster than stated in many books and publications. So you see: Our repair-project leads to many consequences and predictions. This article is about the famous Hubble law. The law is explained, analysed and grilled. The measured redshift of our today’s most far spotted galaxy GN-z11...